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1. GISS is a high-performance leveling agent for LCD area which comes from the condensation of polyethyleneimine under specific condition. 2. It performs well in leveling and is always used by combining SP, M, N, AESS, PN or P. 3. Not only could GISS be used in acid copper, it could also be used in the brightener for low- cyanide zinc plating. Package and Storage

1. CPSS is a very good HCD and LCD leveling agent for acid copper, which can help to make plating pieces bright fast. 2. CPSS has a good throwing power in LCD area, and could resistant to high temperature. LCD area will not turn red even when the temperature exceed 40℃. 3. It effectively ameliorates the stability of baths solution and improves current efficiency. 4. It has a wide dosage range. The plating surface will not be hazy if CPSS is excessively added.

1. POSS is very good in leveling and brightening. Within the range of cathode current density 0.2-10A/dm2, it produces good brightening plating layer, which could replace traditional M, N or H1. 2. POSS could resist strong acid and be stable in acid solution. It overcomes the drawbacks that M may be deposited in acid solution. 3. POSS has a wide dosage range. Even if twice more than normal amount is added, there won't be pittings, specklings or plating leakage at the LCD area, nor be HCD roughness, burning or haze. 4. POSS is good in high temperature resistance. LCD area will not turn red even when the temperature exceed 40℃. 5. It is compatible with M, N, H1 or dyes with no side effect. 6. It performs very well when used in combination with SP or P. The effect will be even better when combined with other intermediates, such as PN, AESS, GISS or dyes.

1. The properties of TPS are similar to SP, being excellent in leveling in LCD area at high temperature. 2. TPS is an advanced high-performance intermediate for acid copper as an alternative to SP and M. 3. It is always used in combination with GISS, PN, P or N.

1. This article is the grain refiner at LCD for acid copper.
2. Not only could DPS be used in combination with surfactant such as Polyether or wetting agents,but also could it be used in combination with sulfur-bearing brighteners to get good deposit which has fine brightness and ductility.
3. It could be utilized in precious-metal electroless plating and as an electroplating stabilizer.
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